The Bodhisatta Sacrificed His Life to Accrue Perfections 菩萨牺牲性命修波罗蜜
The great Bodhisatta vowed to achieve self-enlightenment so as to lead all humans and celestial beings to attainment. He spent exactly 20 Asankheyyas and 100,000 Kappas to pursue Ten Perfections at all three levels. Exhausted all His worldly wealth and life, He donated His blood, body parts, heads, and eyes for countless times. When all the Perfections were accomplished, the Boddhisatta was reborn in the celestial heaven of Tusita as its sovereign King Santusita. It was there that He waited for the right opportunity to be born as a human being and become a Buddha.
The Bodhisatta Sacrificed His Life to Accrue Perfections 菩萨牺牲性命修波罗蜜
当世尊仍在菩萨时期，誓愿要自觉，以突破生死 轮回的苦海；然后度化一切众生，不论是人类或天人 都能证法。菩萨认真地修十波罗蜜，从初级、中级直 到高级波罗蜜；长达二十阿僧祇和十万大劫之久。毫 尽无数财富与生命,捐献了无数血液、肉体、头颅、 眼珠等等。当波罗蜜圆满时，菩萨转生到兜率天当天 王，等待吉时降生人间，圆满成佛。
Five Factors to Determine the Birth of Lord Buddha 诞生前的五大观
When it was the right time for the Bodhisatta to be born as the Buddha, a congregation of celestial beings came to beseech King Santusita for His final rebirth. It was necessary to consider five important factors. They were: i) the right human continent, only Jombhu Continent was preferred, ii) the country which must situated in the middle of the continent, iii) average human lifespan between 100 to 100,000 years, when the human mind was ready to understand the Truths of life, iv) a royal family, the noblest birth, v) a potential mother who vowed to give birth to a Buddha. When everything was well in placed, the Bodhisatta accepted the request. The father was King Suddhodana. Queen Sirimahamaya dreamed that a white king elephant offered her a white lotus, the Bodhisatta entered her womb then.
当时机成熟时，所有的天人都聚会一堂，恭请兜率天 天王降生人间成佛。降生之前，菩萨做了五项大观察：首 先是洞察诸佛降生的南瞻部洲；接着，选择诞生在中央国 家；第三是当代人的平均寿命界於一百岁至十万岁之间， 人们会有足够的智慧明白生命的知识，第四是皇族，最高 尚的种族；以及第五佛母人选，曾誓愿要当佛母的女性。 当一切因缘就绪后，菩萨就接受诸天人的邀请降生于娑婆 界。父亲是净饭王，佛母是摩诃摩耶夫人，当她梦见白象 王将白莲花供给她,菩萨就在当时降生于佛母胎里。
Sat Inside the Womb in Half-lotus Position 在母胎里盘腿打坐
The moment the Bodhisatta entered the womb of the Queen, the power of His Perfections effected a loud rumble and the ground quaked; brightness pervaded everywhere together with the occurrence of 32 supernormal events in 10,000 universes. Since the Bodhisatta was conceived, there were no feelings of discomfort or compression in the womb. Similarly, the mother felt easy and comfortable as though she was not pregnant. In addition, she could clearly see the foetus sitting in a half-lotus position inside her womb.
Sat Inside the Womb in Half-lotus Position 在母胎里盘腿打坐
当菩萨降生母胎时，累世所修的波罗蜜使大地 发生震动；五色祥光偏布十方，三十二种瑞相也同 时出现在万千宇宙。菩萨在佛母胎里，不曾感觉任 何狭窄或压迫；而佛母也感觉身体很轻松，优如没 有怀孕一般，还能清楚地看见胎儿端盘静坐在自己 胎里。
The Birth of A Great Man with 32 Perfect Signs 21 三十二大人相士的诞生
On the tenth month of pregnancy, in the morning of the 15th day of the 6th waxing moon; Queen Sirimahamaya and the royal retinue were traveling to her hometown at Devadaha. She took a breather at the beautiful Lumbini Grove, while enjoying her stroll, the queen reached out for a branch of the Sala tree, she felt a mild labour contraction. The officials hurried to prepare the area for labour and put up curtains surrounded the Sala tree. Then, a Prince possessing the 32 Great Man Signs was born. There were two streams of warm and cool water showering from the air, cleansing both the queen and the Prince. After that, the Prince raised on His feet, turned toward the north and took seven steps, each step was miraculously cushioned by a lotus sprung from the earth. With a resounding voice comparable to the lion roar yet most endearing as the voice of the Brahma King, the Prince stated: “ I am the supreme being. I am the most advanced being in the world. I am the most sublime being in the world. This is my final rebirth.”
The Birth of A Great Man with 32 Perfect Signs 21 三十二大人相士的诞生
当孕期满十个月时，在农历六月十五当天早晨，摩耶夫人 与宫男宫女往天臂城家乡去。在风景优美的蓝毗尼公园歇息散 步时，夫人举起手抓取沙拉树枝，此时，一股临产之气降下， 随从们马上把帘布围在沙拉树下，准备临盆。正午时分，一位 具有三十二大人相的太子诞生了。即时有温水与冷水从空中洒 下，淋浴夫人和太子。之后，太子以双脚立身，然后朝向北方 走了七步，每走一步，脚下就涌现出一朵莲花垫足。之后，太 子就以如狮子吼般宏量、如大梵天人般美妙的声音说：「天上 天下，唯我独尊，三界皆苦，吾当安之。」
On the fifth day, the Prince was named Siddhattha which means “wish fulfilled”. His family name was Gotama. Eight distinguished brahmins were amongst many invited to the palace for naming ceremony. Upon examining the characteristic marks of the child, seven of them raised two fingers each, and said that the Prince would either become a Universal Monarch or a Buddha. But the youngest brahmin, Kondañña who excelled others in wisdom, raised only one finger and convincingly declared that the prince would definitely retire from the world and become a self-enlightened Buddha.
五天后，太子被命名为悉达多，意为「一切成就」， 家族姓乔达摩（瞿昙）。当时，有许多学识高深的人士被 邀请到皇宫里为太子看相，其中八位是资深的大婆罗门。 经过一番探讨后，七位大婆罗门举手展示两指，预言太子 会成为转轮圣王或佛陀。唯有年龄最轻的乔陈如智慧过人， 只展示一指，确定太子必能觉悟为正等正觉佛陀。
King Suddhodana Saluted the Little Prince 父王虔诚礼敬太子
When the Prince Siddhattha was 7 years old, he joined the Ploughing Festival with his father. King Suddhodana settled the young Prince under the shade of the Jombhu tree (Jave Plum) with the nurses. After awhile, the nurses took part in the festival. As he waited for his father, the Prince sat cross-legged and relaxingly went into meditation. Soon, he developed the First Jhāna. The power of his deep meditation caused miracle, the shade of the tree did not shift despite the movement of the sun. The shade was seen to provide protection to the prince throughout the duration of his meditation. King Suddhodana was filled with reverence and saluted his son who was in deep meditation.
悉达多太子七岁时，跟随父王去参加春耕典礼仪式。 净饭王将太子安顿在安静清凉的瞻布树下，由宫女陪同照 顾。不久，宫女们偷偷地溜去观看春耕典礼。於是，太子 轻松地闭上双眼，盘腿静坐；不久就证得第一禅悦。在太 子深入禅定的时刻，出现了奇迹。虽然太子已静坐了一段 时间，太阳也移位了，清凉的树荫切寸步不离的定守在原 位，继续为太子遮荫。净饭王心生万分敬意，双手合十， 诚心地向在禅定中的儿子顶礼。
Mastering Eighteen Schools of Knowledge in Seven Days 七天内通晓十八门学问
Prince Siddhatha was highly gifted and mastered everything that he was exposed to, including royal education and special training in the art of warfare. He was described as brilliant and incomparably intelligent. At the age of seven, the prince finished eighteen schools of teachings within a brief period of seven day, exhausted all the knowledge and skills of the renowned teachers.
悉达多太子的才智与聪慧无以伦比，所接触过的 种种学问都能通晓畅达。从宫廷学识至武艺战术、文 武双全，无一不精。在七岁时仅用了七天的时间学会 十八门学问，毫尽所有当时渊博名师的学问与知识。
Leading A Divine-like Lifestyle 如天人般的生活
At the age of sixteen, Prince Siddhatha married his beautiful cousin Princess Yasodharā who was of equal age. For thirteen years, he led a happy marriage and luxurious life, ignorant of the vicissitudes of life outside the palace. There were three palaces built for different seasons, the cold, the hot and the rainy season. Night and day a white parasol was held over him to prevent from heat or cold, dust, leaves or dew. The King provided Prince Siddhatha with a divine-like lifestyle with the intention to keep him attached to the life of a householder and to assume the throne later on.
太子十六岁时，与同龄的表妹耶输陀罗公主完婚。 十三年的幸福婚姻生活中，太子享尽了荣华富贵，对皇 宫以外的世界一无所知。父王更赐予三座举世无双的宫 院，用于冬季、夏季，还有雨季。白天至黑夜，太子总 是有白色御伞护顶，预防尘土、冷热、树叶乃至露水。 父王奕常细心的为太子安排一切，过着天人般的生活， 意图让他继承王位，不存有出家的念头。
Renounced in Search of the Truths 为了出家舍弃所有
One glorious day, Prince Siddhattha went on an excursion outside the palace. He came in direct contact with the stark realities of life, his observant eyes met the rare sights of a decrepit old man, a diseased person, a corpse and a dignified monk. The first three sights convincingly proved to him the inexorable nature of life, while the sight of monk signified the means to overcome the ills of life for calm and peace. These four unexpected sights urged him to renounce the world. Although the he had every desirable thing in the world including the royal throne, Prince Siddhattha decided to leave the world in search of Truths and Eternal Peace.
有一天，悉达多太子到城外郊游，他第一次看到宫 庭以外的真实生活。太子观察到一个老态龙钟的老人、 病人、尸体和威仪壮严的出家人。前三项景相表达了人 生无常和痛苦的本质；而出家人则象征着战胜生命的痛 苦，获得寂静安乐。虽然太子拥有一切世人所追求的奢 侈享受以及王位，他不再攀缘，毅然舍弃世俗生活，追 求生命真理和永恒之乐。
Ordain in Search of Liberation to All Sufferings 出家寻求离苦之道
When Prince Siddhattha was 29 years old, Princess Yasodharā gave birth to their son Rāhula. Great was his love for the two dearest, greater was his compassion for the suffering humanity. He was not worried about the future worldly happiness and comfort of the mother and child as they had everything in abundance and were well protected. Time was ripe to depart. Leaving all behind, the prince with his loyal charioteer Channa left the palace on the royal steed Kanthaka. Thus did he renounce the world in search of ways to eliminate sufferings so as to liberate all sentient beings from the Samsara.
悉达多太子二十九岁时，太子妃怀胎十月, 诞下 麟儿罗侯罗。虽然太子内心充满了对两位至亲的无限 关爱; 但是，他对于在三界中痛苦挣扎的众生具有更 深广的悲悯。悉达多太子不需为母子俩的生活与未来 操心，因为她们应有尽有，而且已得到很好的照料。 出家的时机到了。将世俗的一切卸下后，太子命令车 匿禅那骑着白马犍陀出宫，就此踏上了追求离苦和度 众生的神圣之道。
Pledge to Ordain As Samana 诚心发愿当沙门
Prince Siddhattha journeyed far, crossing the river Anomā and ordained himself as samana (ascetic). He cut off his top-knot and trimmed his hair to the length of two fingers breadth. Immediately, all the hair on his head wound by itself clockwise to form neat rows of coils. Before tossing the severed hair into the air, Samana Gotama made a deliberate wish, “If I were to be self-enlightened as a Buddha, then let my severed top-knot remain in the air.” The hair remained in the air and received by King Sakka of the Tavatimsa Heaven. Later on, Brahma Ghatīkāra offered alms-bowl and the saffron robe to Samana Gotama.
Pledge to Ordain As Samana
经过一番跋涉，悉达多太子越过阿那姆河，就地落 发出家为沙门。当太子将发髻剪断，头发剩下大约两根 手指宽的长度时，每一根头发都自动往右边曲卷，形成 整齐排状的右旋螺发。当时，瞿昙沙门手中握着落发， 诚心发愿：若我能觉悟成佛愿此头发不着地。之后，便 把头发往空中抛；头发漂浮在空中，由帝释，忉利天天 王接走。随即，卡提咔拉梵天人亲自供养袈裟和钵予瞿 昙沙门。
Samana Gotama Exhausted the Knowledge of Famous Masters 瞿昙沙门参透当代名师所教的学问
Searching for the unsurpassed peace, Samana Gotama approached two famous masters Ālāra Kālāma and Uddaka Rāmaputta. Soon, he learnt all the doctrines and attained the same level of mental concentration as the teachers, at the Realm of Nothingness and the realm of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception respectively. Still, Samana Gotama felt that their teachings did not lead to detachment, cessation of suffering, enlightenment, and Nibbāna. He realized that his spiritual aspirations were far higher and that the highest Truth is to be found within oneself and ceased to seek external aid thereof.
瞿昙沙门精进求法，向当代两位名师，阿罗罗迦罗摩 与优陀伽罗摩子学习。不久，他就精通其法，证得跟导师 们同层次的禅定，即是空界禅与非想非非想界。但瞿昙沙 门察觉这些方法都不能离苦、灭苦、觉悟和证悟涅槃。终 於，他觉得自己所追求的最终目的还没法实现, 即辞别导 师，亲自寻求灭苦之道。
Searching for the Ways to Eradicate Suffering 寻找灭苦之道
Embraced with strong determination, Samana Gotama continued his search for ways to eradicate sufferings. For six long years the samana embarked on severe asceticism such as clenching of teeth, non-breathing and complete abstinence from food. His body was reduced to almost a skeleton, but still nowhere near to the way of Truths. Eventually, he recalled the easy method of gaining the First Jhana at the age of seven, thus decided to abandon the painful extreme. The samana began to nourish his body by taking food sparingly. The five ascetics, who were attending to him, felt disappointed and left as they were not convinced that the new approach would lead to self-enlightenment.
瞿昙沙门凭着坚强的意志继续寻找解脱之道， 并以超人的毅力修了六年的苦行，分别尝试过紧咬 牙关，憋气，断食等等。造成身体枯瘦如柴，仍然 不能灭苦。终於，沙门忆想到七岁时曾坐在瞻布树 下，轻松自然地证入第一禅 ，决定放弃极端的苦 行。之后，沙门开始有节制地进食，调整身体。跟 随沙门的五位侍者不相信此种修行方式能证法，认 为他放弃修行，随即离开。
Middle Path 以中道修行
Right after Samana Gotama aborted the ascetic life, he practiced meditation diligently. On the day of his Enlightenment, lady Sujātā offered a special milk rice dish to him. In that evening, brahmin Sotthiya offered a bundle of fresh grass for him to sit under the Bodhi tree near Neranjara River. Adopting the half-lotus position, Samana Gotama vowed: “Should I not attain enlightenment today, be it that my blood and flesh dry up leaving only skin, tendons, and bones; I shall not leave this seat”. Subsequently, the samana adopted the Middle Way approach, not too tense or too lax, meditated at the just right condition.
当瞿昙沙门结束苦行后，精进静坐修行。大 尊者成道的当天早上，牧羊女输伽陀供养了牛奶 饭给沙门。傍晚时分，婆罗门苏提亚供养草团让 他铺在尼连禅河边的菩提树下当坐垫。沙门端盘 静坐，心坚定不移地誓愿道：今天我若不能证得 无上正等菩提，即使身上的血与肉都干枯，只剩 下皮与胫骨，也不离此座。之后就采取中道，不 太绷紧也不太松弛，恰到其处地修行。
Victory before Enlightenment 未成道即战胜魔罗
The strong determination of Samana Gotama alerted the Mara Chief to mobilize the Mara troops against Him. The Mara Chief was on the elephant Girimekhla of 2,400 kilometers height, conjured up 1,000 hands carrying different weapons to intimidate the samana. He had no one to depend on but the three levels of Ten Perfections, they were His supreme warriors and weapons to battle against vicious tricks of the Mara including thunderstorm and different types of malicious rains. Eventually, the Mara troops were defeated and elephant Girimekhla too could not withstand the power of derived from the perfections, lost its balance and resulted in a dire fall of the Mara Chief. Thus did Samana Gotama conquer the Mara, gained victory before His Enlightenment.
魔罗得知沙门修行后，马上召集所有的魔兵团， 当中天子魔骑着一百五十由旬高的给雷眉大象化出一 千只手拿着各种武器，前来阻止沙门证道。孤军作战 的沙门毫不畏惧，以自己所圆满的三十波罗蜜为将军 及武器；对抗魔罗的暴风以及各种各样的致命毒雨。 最后整个魔兵团败战，连给雷眉大象也站不稳，被沙 门的波罗蜜威德力所化出的洪水冲倒，天子魔也跌落 在地上。大尊者在成道之前就已经战胜魔罗了。
Attained Self Enlightenment with Meditation 以禅定证悟成正等正觉佛陀
After clearing the Mara troop, Samana Gotama continued to meditate, by keeping his mind completely still at the center of body. When the mind achieved total stillness, samana realized the Middle Path; he continued to guard the mind till dawn. It was the 15th day of the 6th waxing moon, the Perfect Man attained self-enlightenment as the Lord Buddha. He was 35 years old.
战胜魔罗后，瞿昙沙门就继续修行；让心宁静 在身体中央，心静定止歇后就证入了中道，如此维 持到凌晨。此日正是农历六月十五日，大尊者在菩 提树下觉悟，成为正等正觉佛陀。当年，世尊正好 三十五岁。
The Supreme Truths 无上生命知识
The Lord Buddha realised the ultimate truths that could lead all sentient beings out of suffering. The first knowledge was realized in the first watch of that night, Pubbenivāsānussatinnāna, the supernormal knowledge of previous lives recollection. Followed by the realization of Cutūpapātannāna during the second watch, the Enlightened One attained clairvoyant vision to perceive beings disappearing and reappearing from one state of existence to another according to their deeds, Kamma. In the last watch of the night, the realization of Āsavakkhayannāna, the Four Noble Truths were revealed. There and then, ignorance was dispelled, and wisdom arose; darkness vanished, and light arose.
正等正觉佛陀所证悟的无上正法能使三界众 生离苦得乐。首种正等知识称为「宿命明」，於 初夜证得，能回忆自己过去宿世的一切。接着， 在中夜时分，世尊证得「天眼明」，尽知众生的 生死轮回，缘灭缘起，一切都以业力为主。在晚 夜时分，世尊以最清净之心证得了第三种知见， 「漏尽明」，灭尽一切烦恼，觉悟了四圣谛。从 此，无明除，智慧生，黑暗消，光明至。
A Supreme Teacher 至高无上的导师
The Lord Buddha is indeed a supreme teacher. The Enlightened One has penetrated the truth of all things. He can perceive the characteristics such as the nature, temperament, defilements, and intelligence of all beings with His supernormal vision, thus would expound Dhamma teaching accordingly. Right after His Enlightenment, the Buddha thought of the five energetic ascetics who had attended to Him; reckoned that they were residing in the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares. The Buddha was pleased and set off for Benares.
A Supreme Teacher 至高无上的导师
正等正觉佛陀确实是至高无上的导师。佛陀 通晓一切法，能以法眼观察所有众生的根性、习 气、烦恼、慧根；然后根据个人的程度，清楚的 将佛法传授。证悟之后，佛陀想起五位精进修行 的侍者，以天眼了知他们正住在鹿野苑。佛陀随 即前往比纳里斯城（瓦拉纳西的旧称）。
Practice His Teachings to Attain Dhamma 跟随佛陀的步履成就修行
On the 15th day of the 8th waxing moon, the Lord Buddha delivered the first discourse to the five ascetics, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, the turning of the Wheel of Truth. Ascetic Kondañña, the senior the five, attained the Dhamma. After that, Aññā-Kondañña requested ordination from the Lord Buddha. The day that Aññā-Kondañña became the first Buddhist monk also marked the day of formation of the Triple Gems (the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha). This is Asalha Puja Day.
同年的八月十五日，佛陀在鹿野苑开示初转 法轮经，度化五位侍者。乔陈如，五侍者之首， 最先开悟。之后，乔陈如向佛陀请求出家，成为 佛教的第一位比丘。此日正是佛、法、僧三宝具 足之日，称为初转法轮日。
The First Messengers of Truth (Dhammadūta) 第一批佛法薪传者
When the Lord Buddha gathered the first sixty arahant disciples, He decided to send them to teach the Dhamma to all without any discrimination. The message from the Lord Buddha was: “Go forth, O Bhikkhus, for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the deva and human beings. Let not two go by one way. There are beings with little dust in their eyes, who not hearing the Dhamma, will fall away. There will be those who understand the Dhamma.” Then, the Lord Buddha decided to preach at Uruvelā.
当有了第一批为数六十位证悟阿罗汉果的弟 子，慈悲的世尊就决定让第子们分道扬飙，不分 等级，平等地将殊胜的佛法弘扬到四面八方。佛 陀告诫说：「诸比丘，去吧，为了大众的善益和 福祉，出于对世界的慈悲，为了人与天人。诸比 丘，不要两人同路去。有一些众生，眼中只有一 点尘土，若没机会闻法，将会堕落。一定会有众 生能明了佛法。」为了弘扬佛法，佛陀决定前往 优楼频螺。
Veluvanārāma, the First Buddhist Monastery 竹林精舍 第一所佛教寺院
The Lord Buddha, with His large retinue of arahant disciples, went to Rājagaha, Magadha. King Bimbisāra welcomed the Buddha with a large number of his subjects. Upon listening to the Dhamma expounded by the Lord Buddha, King Bimbisāra attained Sotāpatti, and took refuge in the Triple Gems. King Bimbisāra gladly offered his Bamboo Grove to shelter the Lord Buddha and all the arahant monks, named the Veluvanārāma, marked the first Buddhist Monastery. The Lord Buddha spent a total of six rains retreats at Veluvanārāma, propagated Dhamma to many human and Celestial Beings. He had proven the fact that Buddhist Teachings are true, sublime and attainable.
佛陀在众多阿罗汉大弟子的陪同下，来到王舍 城化缘。频毗莎罗王率领文武百官及臣民百姓前往 迎接。听了佛陀开示佛法，频毗莎罗王即证须陀洹 果，然后皈依三宝。频毗莎罗王更法喜的供养竹林 园给佛陀和僧团当住宿。命名为竹林精舍，是第一 所佛教寺院。佛陀前后在此渡过六个雨安居，度化 许多人与天人，应证佛法不但属实、无上，更能使 修行者证悟。
A Great Teacher to All Humans and Celestial Beings 人与天人们的伟大导师
Lord Buddha was a most energetic and active teacher, His daily routine was fully occupied with religious activities. They were divided into five parts, (i) the Morning Session, Alms Round; (ii) the Afternoon Session, Deliver Discourses to the Laities; (iii) the Night Session, Coaching the Monastic Disciples; (iv) the Mid-Night Session, Answer Queries from the Celestial Beings; and (v) the Dawn Session, Survey the World with His Divine Eyes for Potential Person to Receive His Transcendental Aid. The Great Teacher provided guidance with magnificent determination without any discrepancies, leading to an exponential increase in the number of followers.
世尊慈悲为怀，度化十方大众。佛陀每天有五 项佛务：（一）早晨托钵化缘，（二）黄昏向在家 众讲经说法，（三）晚间对僧团开示,（四）午夜 解答天人的疑问，（五）黎明时分入定观察该度的 众生。佛陀不曾保留自己的知识，淳淳善诱地耐心 教导、度化一切众生。因此，立愿出家跟随佛陀的 僧人与日俱增，使佛教发扬光大。
Ovādapātimokkha, the Core of Buddhism 《教诫波罗提木叉偈》佛教的核心
On the 15th day of the 3rd waxing moon (Magha) in the following year, there were 1,250 Arahant disciples gathered spontaneously at the Veluvanārāma. In that meeting, the Enlightened One delivered the Ovādapātimokkha (the Patimokkha Exhortation), a summary of the rules for the Sangha Community. The Lord Buddha expounded clearly the principles, values and method or propagating Dhamma; emphasizing the core of Buddhism as “Not to Do Any Evil, To Cultivate Good, To Purify One’s Mind”. This day is also named as the Magha Puja Day, an important day in the Buddhist calendar.
隔年的三月十五日，佛陀于摩羯陀国王舍城的竹林精 舍，为一千二百五十位不约而来的阿罗汉比丘随顺说法；开 示《 教诫波罗提木叉偈 》，佛教的理念，原则及传扬佛法 的方法，使所有一千二百五十位比丘有一致的见解，进而正 确的传扬佛陀的教导。佛陀也在当日（又称为万佛节）奠定 佛教的核心：「诸恶莫作，众善奉行，自净其意」。
Lord Buddha’s Gratitude to His Parents 佛陀报答父母恩
The Lord Buddha is indeed the best role model worthy of emulation in showing gratitude to His parents. Over four separate occasions, He has delivered Dhamma discourses to His father, King Suddhadana, till the King to attain Arahantship before he passed away. Subsequently, the Lord Buddha observed His rains retreat in Tāvatimsa Heaven and expounded Abhidhamma to his mother (Sirimahamaya) who was reborn as the King Santusita in Tusita Heaven. King Santusita attained Sotāpatti after hearing the discourse. The Lord Buddha demonstrated highest form of gratitude to His parents by ending the rebirth for the father and shortening the numbers of rebirth for the mother to seven lifetimes before she would attain eventual Arahantship.
佛陀报恩父母，是世人的最佳典范。世尊不辞 劳苦，耐心地为父亲净饭王开示四次，使父亲在临 终前证悟阿罗汉圣果。于当年的雨安居，佛陀到忉 利天为母亲（摩诃摩耶，转世后生为兜率天天王） 开示阿毗达摩经，天王闻法后证得须陀洹圣果。佛 陀以至高的孝顺方式报答父母恩惠，使父亲不必再 受轮回之苦。而母亲也成为圣者，再生为人七世既 将证悟成为阿罗汉。
Lord Buddha Unveiled the Three Spheres of Existence 佛陀慈悲三 界
After His Abhidhamma Discourse, the Lord Buddha descended back to the human world. The King Sakka created three stairways, with Lord Buddha on the diamond stairway in the middle, accompanied by the congregations of Devas on the gold stairway and Brahmas on the silver stairways. The stairways stretched from Tāvatimsa to the city of Sakassa on earth. When the Lord Buddha set foot on the earth, He compassionately unveiled the Three Spheres of Existence to allow Celestial beings, Human, Hell beings, Animals, Petas and Asuras, to see each other clearly. That spectacular sight made many vowed to emulate the Lord Buddha. Subsequently, the Lord Buddha expounded Dhamma that enabled 300 millions human and Celestial Beings to attain the inner Threefold Refuge.
佛陀为佛母开示结束后，回返人间，天王帝释化出 三道天宝梯，佛陀在中间的钻晶天梯，祥光万丈；众天 人随在金色天梯，而梵天人们则从银色天梯护送。三道 天梯由忉利天直通萨卡沙市。回到人间的那一刻，世尊 慈悲的为众生打开三界，使众天人、人、地狱、畜生、 阿修罗等一切众生，都能清楚看见对方。目睹此难得又 盛大辉煌的一幕，无数众生万分法喜；立愿跟随佛陀修 行。之后，世尊向大众开示；其后，三千万人与天人当 下证入内在三宝。
The Lord Buddha Tamed the Yakka 佛陀降伏夜叉
Reckoned that the nasty Yakka (demon) Ālavaka, would achieve attainment soon, the Enlightened One went to Ālavi, the forest where the Yakka was residing. Upon entering his abode, the Lord Buddha was welcomed by various weapons and vicious attacks. However, the Lord Buddha easily overthrew all the wicked tricks. Furiously, Ālavaka ordered the Lord Buddha to leave and return to his abode three times; followed by challenging the Enlightened One with some profound questions and threatened to harm Him. Eventually, the Omniscient One convinced the beastly Yakka. Filled with faith and respect, Ālavaka sought refuge in the Lord Buddha and subsequently attained Sotāpatti.
佛陀透过禅定，了知凶暴的食人夜叉阿拉瓦克即将 悟道；就到阿拉卫森林中，进入夜叉的宫殿里。阿拉瓦 克立刻施魔法驱逐；用各种手段及武器攻袭世尊。佛陀 法高一筹，将夜叉的凶暴攻袭都化解。夜叉非常生气， 接着重复三次命令世尊离开，然后又进到他的宫殿，甚 至提出一些深奥的问题并恐赫要杀害佛陀。结果，智慧 非凡的世尊降伏阿拉瓦克夜叉，使他万分佩服，皈依佛 陀，并迅速证得须陀洹圣果，弃恶从善。
The Lord Buddha Guided Angulimāla to Arahantship 佛陀度杀人狂成圣者
The Lord Buddha observed that Angulimāla, a serial killer, was about to commit dire crime of killing his mother. Angulimāla ran into an unscrupulous teacher who asked him to kill and collect 1000 human index fingers which he made into a garland and hang around his neck. The Lord Buddha appeared between Angulimāla and his mother, and caused Him to be the target instead. After many rounds of chasing, the exhausted killer still could not catch the Lord Buddha, he then shouted “Stop recluse, standstill!” “I standstill Angulimāla, you did not.” The Wise One replied. Subsequently, the Lord Buddha delivered a Dhamma Discourse, Angulimāla dropped his sword and knelt down to seek refuge and ordination with the Lord Buddha. Soon after his ordination, Angulimāla attained Arahantship.
佛陀观察到杀人狂鸯掘利摩罗既将无知的杀害 自己的母亲。他误信无良的导师而杀人，收集受害 者的母指围挂在自己脖子上。佛陀现身于鸯掘利摩 罗跟他母亲之间，於是他就改而追杀世尊。追赶了 好几轮后，他精疲力竭地向佛陀喊停。佛陀回答: 「我已经停了，但是你还没停。」随即，佛陀开示 度化；鸯掘利摩罗闻法后当下把剑放下，跪地向佛 陀请求皈依、出家。不久后就证得阿罗汉圣果。
Baka Brahma Developed Right Views 巴卡梵天人生正见
Baka Brahma was enjoying the immense span of existence in Brahma realm, and because he had supernatural powers, he could see distant things and create illusions. Thus, he assumed that Brahmas were eternal, they are the creators of the world, living in Nibbāna. To correct his views, the Lord Buddha appeared instantly at his abode and pointed out his mistakes. Baka Brahma argued and challenged the Enlightenend One to trace his previous life, followed by answering difficult questions and disguising his physical form. The Lord Buddha resolved all the confrontations easily, but Baka Brahma was not able to track the Enlightened One when He disappeared. Hence, admitted his shortfalls and took refuge in the Buddha.
巴卡梵天人在梵天界享乐、渡着漫长的舒适生 活。他能显神通、透视千里且能随心化象。因此， 他坚信梵天界是究竟，是造世主，已经到达涅槃。 为了修正巴卡梵天人的邪见，佛陀就显现在他的天 宫里，开示指点。巴卡梵天人不但不相信佛陀，还 佼辩、出难题，使用化身术等等来刁难世尊；可都 被世尊的无上威德力化解了。当佛陀隐身，只发出 声音时，他切无法辨认世尊的所在处。巴卡梵天人 终於心生正见，当下请求皈依佛陀。
Buddhism Teaches the Attainment of Wisdom 佛教教导生命知识
The teaching of Lord Buddha is capable of transforming a mundane life to that of a sublime. His remarkable teachings are indeed impressive and incomparable because He had presented the truths of life in a sensible and realistic manner for all to practice. Moreover, the knowledge expounded over 2500 years ago is still relevant and applicable now. For instance, the details of human birth from conception to delivery were well elucidated by the Lord Buddha way before the advent of ultrasound technology. Most importantly, those who practice the teachings were guided to attain higher wisdom and insight.
佛陀的教诲能使众生转凡入圣，生命高尚。 世尊精简的教义，非常殊胜、无以伦比。佛陀法 更是经得起时间的考验，虽然经过了二千五百多 年，世尊所开示过的都句句属实、时时受用。例 如佛陀讲解人类从受孕直到诞生的过程，都精准 无误的吻合现代科学工具的发表。最重要的是无 论谁能诚心奉行佛陀的教诲，都必获得全知全能 的大智慧。
Buddhism Is the Religion of Peace 佛教是提倡和平的宗教
Buddhism promotes peace; it has always been propagated in a peaceful manner, and never did a single individual was forced to subscribe to it. Instead, people are reminded to thoroughly examine the Teachings and prove their values by personally practicing them. Hence, the pious Buddhists tend to be peaceful, rational and detest violence. For over 2500 years, Buddhists had never waged a war with another religion, so this goes to show that the Teachings of Lord Buddha emphasizes on mutual existence in harmony. Therefore, world peace is certainly of utmost concern.
佛教提倡和平，以和平方式化缘、广传，不 曾强迫任何人皈依。其实，佛教鼓励自主，劝请 有兴趣学佛者亲自修行实践、验证世尊的教导。 所以，虔诚的佛教徒都酷爱和平，有理性且排斥 暴力。佛教流传世间二千五百多年以来，从未向 任何宗教宣战。由此可见，佛陀的教义提倡和睦 共处，世界和平更是每一位佛教徒齐心努力、期 待的。
Buddhism Teaches the Cessation of Suffering 佛教是教导灭苦的宗教
The most unique teaching of the Lord Buddha is the cessation of sufferings. The Omniscient One realized the causes to all uncertainties, discontentment and unpleasant encounters in life, all lie in the defilements deeply rooted in the mind of each individual. The only way to cease these sufferings is to accomplish the Ten Perfections by diligently cultivate generosity, observe precepts and practice meditation. Once we achieved the Perfections, we could attain Arahantship, terminating the cycle of rebirth and be liberated from all sufferings in this Samsara world.
佛教最显注的特点是教导众生灭苦。世尊觉悟 人们所遭遇的一切无常，不如意和不称心的事物， 全部都源自隐藏在个人内心的烦恼。唯一能断除烦 恼的方法就是通过布施、持戒、修禅定圆满十波罗 蜜；当波罗蜜圆满时，就可以证悟阿罗汉圣果，灭 尽三界轮回中所有的痛苦。
The Lord Buddha Announced Parinibbāna 世尊宣告入灭之日
The Lord Buddha worked tirelessly over the span of 45 years to propagate Buddhism widely for the benefit of all beings. During His stay at the Pavala Cetiya on the 15th day of the 3rd waxing moon, the Lord Buddha foretold that He will enter complete Nibbāna three months later. From then on, the Great Teacher continued to expound His teachings relentlessly to ensure that Buddhism is firmly rooted in this earth so that all beings could still benefit from His Teachings for longest possible after His departure.
佛陀不辞劳苦，慈悲的弘法度众，长达四十五年 的时间。在2553年前的农历3月15日当天，世尊于巴 瓦拉塔（涅槃塔）开示时正式宣告说：「迄今起三个 月后，世尊将圆寂，入灭涅槃。」之后，世尊仍然努 力不歇的开示化缘，使佛法根深蒂固、渊远流传于世 间；让人们在世尊入灭后能继续依法修行。
The Final Exhortation 最后的教诲
The Lord Buddha was genuinely a great teacher up till the moment prior to His departure. He had compassionately granted permission for the Sangha to assemble and checked consecutively three times if the disciples had any doubts on the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Order (Sangha), the Path and the Method. None replied. Then, Lord Buddha delivered His final teaching: “Behold, disciples. Subject to change are all component things, do not be reckless.”
世尊是一位绝无仅有的无上师。临入涅槃前， 佛陀还慈悲的召见僧团，连续三回地询问弟子们是 否对佛、法、僧三宝，修习之道，修行方法，存有 任何疑问。众比丘沉默不语。接着，佛陀给弟子作 了最后教化：「众弟子，谛听，世尊告诫大家，一 切有为法皆无常，不可放逸。」
The Parinibbāna 入灭涅槃
Upon delivering His final advice, the Lord Buddha attained complete Nibbāna near dawn on the on the 15th day of the 6th waxing moon, at the age of 80; exactly on the date foretold. The Lord Buddha attained Parinibbāna in a most dignified manner through His meditative attainment. The entire sacred process was witnessed by Venerable Anuruddha who was known for his well developed Divine Eye. On the 8th day of the 6th waning moon, seven days after the Lord Buddha attained complete Nibbāna, His holy body was cremated.
圆满最后告诫后，于农历六月十五日凌晨，佛 陀深入禅定后入灭涅槃。当时世尊寿元八十，入灭 的日子正是先前所宣告的日期。天眼第一的阿那律 陀尊者目睹世尊入灭的每一个微细过程。七天后， 佛陀的圣体进行荼毗。
Distribution of the Holy Relics 分配佛舍利
Lord Buddha, the Supreme Teacher of the world has been most highly venerated by humans, Celestial, and Brahma Beings. After the Lord Buddha attained Parinibbāna, kings from eight different kingdoms came to request for a share of the Holy relics which would be worshipped by the Buddhist laities. King Sakka received a portion of the Holy Relics and enshrined them inside the Culamani Cetiya in the Tāvatimsa Realm where they are worshipped by the Celestial Beings.
佛陀是世间的无上教主，备受世人，天人与梵 人的至高尊崇。佛陀证入涅槃后，即时有八国国王 前来请求舍利，以供信众顶礼膜拜。天王帝释，也 前来领取一部分的佛舍利，供奉于忉利天的莲花宝 塔内，让众天人诚心礼敬。
Vesak Day —An Important Day for the World 卫塞节—世界重要节日
The Lord Buddha had strived till the very last moments of His life for the sake of all sentient beings. The Enlightened One led a beautiful, impeccable, and crystal clear life from Birth, Self-Enlightenment to Parinibbāna which occurred on the same day on the 15th day of the 6th waxing moon. As such, the United Nations has recognised Vesak Day as an important day for the United Nations and everyone in the world.
佛陀确实是人与天人的伟大恩师，教化度众直到 生命的最后一息。世尊圆满无瑕的生命，从诞生、成 道至入涅槃，都落在同一天，即是农历六月十五日， 后称卫塞节。此重要日子也被联合国公认为联合国重 要节日即是世界的重要节日。
Other interesting facts about the Lord Buddha’s history 有关佛传的细节值得了解
“Kanthaka” was Prince Siddhattha’s mount and he was born on the same day as the prince. There are seven beings and things which came into existence on the day that Prince Siddhattha was born. They included the minister Kaludayi, the royal page Channa, Phra Ananda, Princess Yasodhara, the horse Kanthaka, four treasure troves at the four city corners, and the Bodhi Tree. The horse Kanthaka was extremely loyal to Prince Siddhattha. Upon his death, he was reborn in the Tavatimsa Realm as a gentleman celestial being of the same name. He possesses stupendous celestial wealth which includes the celestial castle, celestial parks, celestial vehicles, and a huge retinue. His celestial wealth arises from the merit earned by having joyfully carried our Bodhisatta out of the palace to begin the religious life as a monk.
Other interesting facts about the Lord Buddha’s history
The importance of the royal steed “Kanthaka”
犍陟马是悉达多太子的马，与太子同日出生。与太子同日出生的有七： 迦留陀夷官员，御者车匿、阿难、耶输陀罗、犍陟马、四方财产及菩提树。 犍陟马对悉达多太子非常忠诚。死后到忉利天再生名犍陟天人，拥有辽阔的 宫殿和花园，大量的交通工具和佣人－－产生这些财富的功德归因其乐于带 菩萨出家的缘故。
What food-offering earns the greatest merit? 哪次供养食物， 有最大的功德？
On the day of our Lord Buddha’s self-enlightenment, He was offered a very special rice dish on a gold platter by a woman called Sujada. She had been awe-struck by our Bodhisatta’s Perfect Man body which was so dignified and handsome that she mistook Him for a celestial being. She made the food-offering in a deeply reverential manner. The food she offered lasted the Lord Buddha for 49 days. The Lord Buddha taught that the food offered to Him before His self-enlightenment and His attainment of complete Nibbana bore the richest fruit. Some time later, Sujada was overjoyed to have found out that our Bodhisatta had become enlightened as the Lord Buddha.
菩萨证悟之前，苏嘉塔女居士怀着对皮肤光亮如天人、 有庄严32大人相的菩萨的尊崇，把乳麋盛在金盘子里供养菩萨。 苏嘉塔女居士在菩萨证悟前所供养的乳麋 ，使菩萨饱了49天。 因此后来佛陀悟到：证悟及进入涅槃之前最后一餐供养食物的功德， 会得到大于其它任何一次供养的功德。苏嘉塔女居士后来知道菩萨吃过她 供养的乳麋之后证悟成为佛陀，她感到十分欢喜。
What is the real name of the Bodhi Tree? 菩提树原名是什么？
It is called the Assatthaparakasa Tree. However, the reason it is called the Bodhi Tree is that any tree under which the Lord Buddha becomes selfenlightened will be called the Bodhi Tree. Currently, the Bodhi Tree is located in the locality of Buddhagaya. This tree is the fourth tree which grew out of the original tree. It is now more than 100 years old. The Bodhi Tree has been brought to other countries including Thailand when Asoka the Great requested some senior Buddhist monks to propagate Buddhism in different lands.
菩提树原名是毕婆罗树。 但被叫作菩提树是因为菩萨是在这种树下证悟的。 因此，菩提树这个词不是树种的名字－－佛陀证悟在哪种树下， 那种树就都可得名为菩提树。 现在长在佛陀证悟的佛陀伽耶镇的菩提树是从原树取枝来种植的。 这棵树现在一百多年了。到阿奢世王邀请长老前去传教时， 菩提树被移植到包括泰国在内的各个国家。
Why was Kondanna the first person to have attained the Dhamma? 为何婆罗门 憍陈如 比其他人先证法？
Kondanna was one of the learnt Brahmins who foretold Prince Siddhattha’s future when he was just an infant. Kondanna said that the little prince would most certainly become self-enlightened as the Lord Buddha. He was also one of the Five Ascetics who had attended to our great Bodhisatta during the period of self-mortification. He was the first human being to attain the Fruit of Sotapanna and ordained as the first Buddhist monk. He was recognized by the Lord Buddha as being the first Buddhist monk to have attained the eternal Dhamma. This most special privilege was granted him as a result of his previous Kamma in that during the time of the Lord Padumutara Buddha, he had given alms to the Lord Buddha and 100,000 monks for 7 days. At the time, he made the deliberate wish to be the first person to attain the Dhamma under one of the future Buddhas.
憍陈如是原来预言说悉达多太子 一定会证悟成为佛陀的婆罗门。 他是佛陀打坐苦修时照顾他的五比丘之一， 是第一位证法的须陀洹圣者；是佛教的第一位比丘。 佛陀称赞他是众比丘中最有预见性的比丘， 就是说他是众比丘中最早证入佛法的。他之所以最早证入佛法， 是因为前世曾给莲花佛及10 万位比丘做过七天功德并祈愿最早证入佛法。
Is it true that Brahma Beings have eternal life? 梵天人真的是无死生命吗？
When Baka was a human being, he had been a Yogi and had achieved meditative absorptions. As a result, he was subsequently reborn in the Brahma Realm. However, the lifespan in the Brahma Realm is so long that Baka misunderstood the Brahma Realm to be devoid of birth and death, hence a land of eternal bliss. His misunderstanding was known to the Lord Buddha and He went to the Brahma Realm in order to save Baka. Later, Baka understood correctly that the Brahma Realm was not a place of eternal bliss but Brahma Beings would still have to undergo the round of rebirth. Baka admitted to the fact that the Lord Buddha was indeed the most superb and the most sublime being.
当葩伽梵天人还是道士时参悟禅那。死后生为梵人， 但梵界的生命很长。当葩伽梵天人住 久了就觉得梵界是永恒的－－没有生、死， 没有痛苦的轮回；是最神圣的地方。 佛陀知道葩伽梵天人的想法，就去梵界指导葩伽梵天人， 直到葩伽梵天人有了正确的想法即梵天界不是最好的地方， 自己的寿命并没所想的那样长，还要再生，再死。 葩伽梵天人接受并相信：佛陀是最卓越的人，没有人比他更好。
Interesting facts about sentient beings 关于众生的小知识
Male and female celestial
Male and female celestial beings are former human beings who had diligently accumulated merit by performing such wholesome deeds as practicing alms-giving, observing the Precepts, practicing meditation, etc. After they died, they were reborn in the Celestial Realm to enjoy the fruit of their merit for a very long time. They are forever young. They do not experience aging and illnesses. They experience only birth and death. The magnitude of the celestial wealth and retinue is determined by each celestial being’s accumulated merit.
天男天女过去世都 是坚持做善事的人， 通过布施、持戒、 静坐等来建立功德。 死后就带去天堂长期享用 以永葆青春－－只有生死， 没有衰老或疾病。谁功德多， 就有更多的财富和佣人。
Gandhabas are celestial beings that dwell in the first celestial realm of Catumaharajika. They are skilled in the areas of music, dancing, plays, arts, poetry, and literature. They have the responsibility of entertaining higher-ranked celestial beings. Rebirth as a Gandhaba results from the fact that as a human being, he/she enjoyed singing, dancing, making music and when he/she made merit, his/her mind was not altogether clear and bright because it was tainted with lust.
在四天王天（第一层天界） 的艺术家天人擅长音乐， 戏剧、舞蹈、艺术、诗 和文学，有为众天仙营造 快乐气氛的职责。生为乐神 是因为他当人时喜欢音乐舞 蹈等并以单纯的 明净快乐心 来做功德。
Garudas are a type of celestial beings that dwell on earth, in the celestial forest of Himavanta, and in the first celestial realm of Catumaharajika. The reason for rebirth as Garudas is that when they were human beings, they made merit with a mind tainted with ignorance. High-class Garudas have gold feathers and are decked with jewels.They can change their physical form. Some eat celestial food. Others feed on Nagas, fruit or meat.
金翅鸟是一类天人， 居住在人间、雪山林以 及四天王天（第一层天界） 的天人。生为金翅鸟原因是 过去世生而为人时修功德带有 痴心。高等金翅鸟有金色的 羽毛，佩戴天人那样的饰品， 可以变身，吃天食。有种 金翅鸟以龙，水果及动物 的肉为食。
Kinaris and Kinaras
Kinaris and Kinaras possess a refined physical form which is not visible to the human eyes. They are half celestial and half animal. The top half is like a human being, the bottom half is like a bird. They can fly. They live in the celestial forest of Himavanta. Kinaras are male whereas Kinaris are female.
人鸟（紧那罗，紧那梨） 是肉眼看不见的半仙半兽身， 上身是人形，有翅； 下身如鸟，可以飞。 紧那罗，紧那梨住在 雪山林。紧那罗是男，紧那梨 是女。生为紧那罗或紧那梨是 因为他们在当人时做功德同时 行业报，如杀生用来 做功德等。
Phya Nagas are the kings of snakes. They possess great supernatural powers. They can change their physical form. They can breathe out fire. They dwell in the first celestial realm of Catumaharajika. There are altogether four Phya Naga families grouped according to their color: gold, rainbow, green, and black. Rebirth as a Phya Naga results from the fact that when he/she was a human being, he/she did not observe the Precepts immaculately and he/she made merit with a mind tainted with lust.
海龙即蛇王， 很有神威。可变身， 喷火、住在第一层天 （四天王天）。 海龙分四个种族即金色， 彩虹色、绿色和黑色。 生为海龙是因为他在 当人时以不明净的， 沉迷于欲念的心做功德 并且十戒不够完整， 所以无法生在善道。
Earth-Sprite Yakkhas are low-class beings that possess a low level of merit. They are hideous and their canines protrude from their mouth. They have tight curls and a very dark body. Their eyes protrude from the sockets. Their skin is as rough as sandpaper. They are ferocious. Rebirth as a Yakkha results from the fact that when he/she was a human being, he/she was quick to anger, easily annoyed, and highly irritable. When he/she made merit, it was with a mind tainted with anger. Therefore whoever is quick to anger will be reborn as a Yakkha.
夜叉， 地居天人是种低级的夜叉， 因为功德少，所以长得很难 看－－獠牙伸长到嘴外， 头发卷曲、皮肤黑、眼球外凸、 皮肤粗如砂纸、习性凶残。 生为夜叉是因为他在当人时暴 躁易怒，做功德时也常生气， 或有不开心的事郁结。 因此，“爱发脾气的人， 会生为夜叉”。
Raksasa is a type of Yakkhas that dwells in the water. They are hideous. They have very dark skin and a big, muscular body. Their canines protrude from their mouth. Their eyes protrude from the sockets. They are ferocious and feed on corpses and rotten carcasses.
水夜叉是居住在水里 的一种夜叉。他皮肤黝黑， 眼球外凸；獠牙伸长到嘴外， 面目狰狞；身体魁梧壮健， 习性凶残。喜欢吃死尸， 越腐烂越喜欢。
Sorcerers and sorceresses
Sorcerers and sorceresses are beings that keep such worldly knowledge as astrology, medicine, science, etc. They are the users of spells and mantras and they can fly. They dwell in silver, gold, or crystal caves singly or in a group
科学家天人有各方 面知识，如星算占卜学， 医学、科学等。 他们能飞，会各种咒语。 独居或群居在银色， 金色或玻璃的 山洞里。
Phya Yamaraj is a Kumbhand which is a type of Yakkhas. They wear the ornaments characteristic of the first celestial realm of Catumaharajika. They do not wear buffalo horns or a buffalo skull as has been widely believed. Their eyes are red and inspire fear in any onlooker. They have a loud, intimidating voice. Phya Yamaraj has the responsibility of judging a deceased person in Yomaloka Hell based on the person’s overall merit and demerit.
阎罗王是一种妖魔或 夜叉，佩带四天王天的饰品。 他没有牛角，没有像人们认为 的那种牛颧骨；他的眼眶是 血红色的，谁只要看到 他的眼睛就已害怕了。 他的声音响亮可怕， 有决定死后去了鬼界 的人的福、孽报 的权利。
Petas are former human or Celestial Beings that had committed serious misdeeds. After having served their sentence in the Hell Realm they are reborn as Petas. The life of a Peta is marked by extreme hunger and suffering. They wear no clothes. There are innumerable kinds of Petas. All of whom are hideous. Their appearance differs and is a result of their individual overall demerit.
饿鬼是过去世的天人 或人类，在地狱赎罪后 就降生为饿鬼。 饿鬼过着食不果腹，衣不蔽体 的痛苦生活。饿鬼有很多种， 每一种都面目狰狞却各不相同。 面部狰狞的不同程度取决于 所做过的罪孽。
Hell Denizens come into existence by the power of demerit. They are not sentient beings. They have a huge body the size of a mountain. Their skin is charcoal black. They are programmed to inflict horrific pain on the Hell Being in accordance with his/her individual demerit. Hell Beings receive no respite from their punishments and they have to endure horrific forms of punishment continuously until the sentence has been served.
冥官因罪孽 势力而降生。 他身形高大如山， 肤色黑如炭、没有灵魂， 以不间断的残酷折磨 大地狱里犯过 孽果的地狱众生直 至其在那里偿清 所有罪孽为止。
地狱众生是曾经 居心叵测，做过各种各样坏事 如杀人，自杀、偷盗、诈骗、 伤害父母、侵害动物等。 死后要落地狱被以极恐怖的方式惩罚， 痛苦至死。 死后再生再受 惩罚－－ 长期受苦 没有快乐。
Hell Beings are former human beings that had committed different forms of misdeeds such as murder, suicide, stealing, being involved in corruption, injuring one’s parents, killing animals, etc. When these human beings die, they must be reborn in the Hell Realm and endure horrific forms of punishment one existence after another for a very long time. Hell Beings experience absolute suffering.